BERIT SHALOM


BERIT SHALOM
BERIT SHALOM ("Covenant of Peace"), society founded in Jerusalem in 1925 to foster relations of rapprochement between Jews and Arabs in Palestine, on the basis of a bi-national solution to the conflict between them, with Jews and Arabs having an equal share in the administration regardless of the size of their respective populations (see bi-nationalism ). Bi-nationalism for Berit Shalom was not an ideal but a function of reality. The trigger for the establishment of the society was a lecture at the opening of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem by the Orientalist Professor Joseph Horowitz of the University of Frankfurt on the Main. The initiative for founding Berit Shalom came from arthur ruppin . The active members in the society belonged to several groups. The first, which was predominant in the early years, was made up of men who had immigrated to Palestine before World War I and were all (except Ruppin himself) of East European origin, had an academic education, and shared a practical political approach to Zionism. They included, in addition to Ruppin, Dr. Jacob thon , Dr. Joseph Lurie , Dr Yitzḥak Epstein, haim margolis-kalvaryski , and rabbi binyamin . The second group, which became predominant after 1929, was made up of intellectuals of a Central European liberal background, was much more ideological than the first group, and its members were all strongly influenced by the philosophy of martin buber . They included Prof. samuel hugo bergmann , Prof. Hans Kohn , Prof. Gershom Scholem , Prof. Ernst Simon , and Dr. Robert Weltsch. Finally there was a group of socalled "Anglo-Saxons," mostly men who were employed by the Palestine Administration, including Edwin Samuel, son of the first High Commissioner to Palestine, herbert samuel , and the attorney general of Palestine, norman bentwich , who did not become full members until 1929. Prof. Judah Leon Magnes , who also advocated bi-nationalism in this period, was never a member of the society, even though his name was frequently identified with it. Berit Shalom never numbered more than 200 members. From the start there were differences concerning the purpose of the society. Ruppin wanted it to be a research group that would present the results of its studies to the Zionist leadership, while others urged that it formulate and attempt to implement its own political program. Ruppin   was chairman of the society until 1929, and the more activist line was carried out by his successor, Joseph Lurie. Rabbi Binyamin, the first editor of Berit Shalom's monthly, She'ifoteinu ("Our Aspirations"), who demanded an agreement with the Arabs on the basis of unlimited Jewish immigration, was replaced when a majority of the members declared themselves ready to accept a temporary limitation of immigration to facilitate an agreement with the Arabs. In 1930 senior members of Berit Shalom published a series of memoranda, the first of which – Memorandum by the Brit Shalom Society on an Arab Policy for the Jewish Agency – was submitted to the Zionist Executive in London in February. The second memorandum, entitled Practical Proposals for Cooperation Between Jews and Arabs in Palestine, was prepared as a response to a suggestion by one of the members of the 1929 Shaw Commission. The third memorandum was a personal endeavor by Ernst Simon, and was distributed to the members of the Conference of the Administrative Committee of the Jewish Agency in London. The fourth and last one was a "Judeao-Arab Covenant" prepared by Kalvaryski in August (apparently unknown to his colleagues at the time), and submitted by him to a member of the Arab Executive. Berit Shalom was attacked by most of the Zionist parties, who viewed its members as defeatists at best and traitors and worst. By 1933 it had virtually ceased to exist, after many of its members deserted it, and it ran out of funds. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: She'ifotenu (1930–33); S. Hattis, The Bi-National Idea in Palestine in Mandatory Times (1970). (Susan Hattis Rolef (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • KORAḤ, YIḤYE (Yaḥya) BEN SHALOM — (1840–1881), scholar and kabbalist, in Sanʾa , yemen . Koraḥ s works are concerned with masorah, the Targum Onkelos, grammar, explanations on the Pentateuch, and exegesis on Yemenite poetry. In two fields, those of Targum Onkelos and Yemenite… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ZIONISM — This article is arranged according to the following outline: the word and its meaning forerunners ḤIBBAT ZION ROOTS OF ḤIBBAT ZION background to the emergence of the movement the beginnings of the movement PINSKER S AUTOEMANCIPATION settlement… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • POLITICAL LIFE AND PARTIES — Introduction It was largely due to the existence of the pre state political parties, which had conducted intensive political activities for almost half a century within the framework of the yishuv , under the British Mandate for Palestine, that… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • BI-NATIONALISM — BI NATIONALISM, one of the solutions to the Jewish Arab national conflict in Ereẓ Israel offered by various Jewish individuals and groups in the period before the establishment of the State of Israel. The bi national idea was based on the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AVI-SHAUL (Mandel), MORDEKHAI — (1898–1988), writer and translator. Avi Shaul, who was born in Szolnok, Hungary, studied at yeshivot and at the Budapest rabbinical seminaries. He went to Palestine in 1921 and was a teacher until 1948. He was active in Berit Shalom and pro… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • MOLHO, ISAAC RAPHAEL — (1894–1976), Greek journalist and Zionist. Molho was born in Salonika, a descendant of Rabbi Joseph Molho, author of Shulḥan Gaviyyah, and Rabbi abraham di boton , author of Leḥem Rav. He studied at the talmud torah, the Alliance Israélite… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • SCHWADRON (Sharon), ABRAHAM — (1878–1957), Israeli folklorist, collector, and Hebrew writer. Born in Zloczow (Zlochev), Galicia, into a well known ḥasidic family, Schwadron grew up in a Zionist atmosphere. He studied with his uncle Shalom Mordecai Schwadron, the gaon of… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Magnes, Judah Leon — (1877 1948)    American rabbi and educator. He was born in San Francisco. He was the rabbi of Temple Israel in Brooklyn, and later assistant rabbi of Temple Emanu El in New York. He was also president of the kehillah in New York. In 1922 he… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Rabbi Binyamin (Ha-Talmi, Yehosua; Radler-Feldman, Yehoshua) — (1880 1957)    Israeli journalist. He was born in Zborov, Galicia, and went to London in 1906. The following year he travelled to Palestine, where he worked as a labourer, and later served as secretary of Herzila high school in Tel Aviv. In 1910… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • BEN-GAVRIEL, MOSHE YA'AKOV — (originally Eugen Hoeflich; 1891–1965), Israeli author who wrote in German. Born into a bourgeois Viennese family (his mother was a cousin of pianist arthur schnabel ), he began studying Arabic at Vienna university, but after three years was… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.